Fire Safety and Security Audit Norms
Portable Fire Extinguishers
What type of fire extinguisher is required?
The type of fire extinguisher or extinguishing agent required depends on the class of fire risk present at a location . For instance, Ceasefire recommends the use of MAP Powder Extinguisher in areas with multiple fire type risks. A Clean Agents Extinguisher for areas with server or sensitive electronic equipment. We recommend special powder extinguisher for areas with risk of Metal fires.
Where electrical appliances can cause a fire, Ceasefire recommends Watermist Extinguisher / CO2.
How many are required?
Several factors like layout, area covered and amount of combustibles present decide the quantity of extinguishing agent required. Ceasefire's unique Fire Rating and Risk Multiplier method rates each extinguisher based on its fire fighting power.
Fire Rating - British Standard specifies that fire extinguishers must be installed according to the class of fire risk and the extinguishing capability of the fire extinguisher rather than its size and content. Fire Rating simply means fire fighting capability of the fire extinguisher.
For example - An extinguisher marked 13A indicates that it is capable of extinguishing a Class A test fire of size 13A. Similarly, 21B means fire extinguishing capability of Class B test fire of size 21B.
As per the provisions of the IS-2190 - We need to provide 4nos Water CO2 of 9lts capacity for every 6000 sq. ft. in such a way that distance between two extinguishers should not be more than 25 meters.
As per the provisions of the IS-2190 - We also need to cover all the compartments and enclosed areas with fire extinguishers of Water type 9ltrs capacity and ensure that at least two extinguisher are visible and accessible from any location in the officeIS 2190 recommends - 2 CO2 type 4.5 Kg per 1000 sq. ft.
Further to cover the Special Hazard, we also need to provide CO2 type of 4.5Kg capacity close to all special hazards like servers, computers, air conditioners, UPS etc. and ensure that at least two.This utterly scientific system ensures that the premises has adequate fire fighting ammunition 24X7.
Most offices have sensitive equipments which can be damaged by powder, carbon dioxide, water or foam, for such premises we recommend Ceasefire Clean Agent HFC 236fa.
All entry and exit points must have MAP based fire extinguisher of 6 Kg. As sometimes people get trapped in fire and help is expected from outside, in such situations we need fire extinguishers of higher rating.
Further as a general rule we must install fire extinguishers with higher rating on the open areas (second line of defense) and with lower rating inside the office.
That said, there should be dedicated extinguishers for special hazard locations like stores, gensets, electric panels,machinery,servers,etc.Each enclosed area, compartments and cabin should also be provided with an extinguisher.
Where does it have to be installed?
The norms for fire extinguisher installation take into consideration various factors like entry and exit points, their location and numbers, their visibility and accessibility from any point, distance between them, layout of the premises etc. Each Special Hazard must have fire extinguisher next to it.
Generally most premises are classified as Class A risk, such premises also have risk arising out of electrically started fires. Therefore we need to install fire extinguishers to cover both the risks.
All passages must have fire extinguishers placed at a distance of 15 m in such a manner that they are visible from any point within.
What capacity is required?
Each type of fire extinguisher is available in various capacities. However, installing the right capacity fire extinguisher is the key to having the right capacity fire extinguisher is the key to having adequate fire fighting power at every location,without compromising the maneuverability of the user.
For instance, we suggest a 2 Kg fire extinguisher for workstations, receptions and machines. In these areas, a smaller and easy to handle fire extinguisher will provide better result than heavier extinguishers.
At various high risk area where fire can grow and enter the critical stage faster owing to either quantity or nature of the fuel (solvents, diesel,paints, etc.,) we recommend higher capacity fire extinguisher like 4 Kg, 6 Kg, 9 Kg, 25 Kg, 50 Kg and 75 Kg etc.